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Alignment Bibliography

The following is a list of books and magazine articles that were used in preparing this information. I borrowed heavily from J.R. Renaud's excellent article concerning alignment in Dragon #163 and made only minor changes to his prose when I used it in each alignment description. Carl Parlagreco's article in The Dragon #26 formed a solid foundation for describing the alignments in terms of a list of "do's and don't's" that will be familiar to Palladium gamers. Information from White Wolf's "viae" system for Vampire: The Dark Ages is found in my "Sins" and "Signs of Weakness" lists. Paragraphs from the Palladium alignments found in Ninjas and Superspies were used to further describe the D&D alignments. The alignment-based honor system in Hackmaster provided the information for the "adventurer" sections.

So, in no way do I consider myself to be an innovator when it comes to the alignment system, merely a compiler of the wealth of information concerning fantasy ethical systems in games. Some of the information, however, is my own. Many times, players have difficulty determining the differences between alignments, so I thought it would be helpful to provide information drawing some distinction between adjacent alignments and alignments sharing an ethical or moral component. I also created the "alignment philosophy" sections relying on my limited understanding of philosophical concepts. All other information is either heavily influenced by or pulled verbatim from the sources listed below.


Angeles, Peter A. The Harper Collins Dictionary of Philosophy. HarperPerennial: 1992.

Achilli, Justin, et al. Vampire: The Masquerade. White Wolf Games Studio: 1998.

Cook, David, et al. Advanced Dungeons and Dragons, 2nd Edition Dungeon Master's Guide. TSR: 1989.

Cook, David "Zeb," et al. Advanced Dungeons and Dragons, 2nd Edition Player's Handbook. TSR: 1989.

Dancey, Ryan, et al. Hero Builder's Guidebook. Wizards of the Coast: 2000.

Gygax, Gary. Advanced Dungeons and Dragons Dungeon Master's Guide. TSR:1979.

Gygax, Gary. Advanced Dungeons and Dragons Player's Handbook. TSR:1978.

Gygax, Gary, et al. Oriental Adventures. TSR:1985.

Harris, C.E. Applying moral theories. Wadsworth Publishing Company: 1992.

Hartshorn, Jennifer, et al. Vampire: The Dark Ages. White Wolf Games Studio: 1996.

Jackson, Steve. GURPS, Basic Set. Steve Jackson Games: 1989.

Popper, Karl. "Individualism versus Collectivism." Popper Selections. David Miller, editor. Princeton University Press: 1985.

Pulver, David. The Complete Druid's Handbook. TSR: 1994.

Solomon, Robert C. Introducing Philosophy. Harcourt College Publishers: 2001.

Swan, Rick. The Complete Paladin's Handbook. Wizards of the Coast: 1994.

The Hackmaster Development Team. Hackmaster: Official Player's Handbook. Kenzer and Company: 2001.

Tweet, Jonathan, et al. Dungeons and Dragons Player's Handbook Core Rulebook I v3.5. Wizards of the Coast: 2004.

Wujcik, Erick. Ninjas and Superspies. Palladium Books: 1994.


Bachmann, Douglas P. "The problem of morality in fantasy." Dragon (#39). July, 1980: 10-11.

Bezold, Robert J. "Thou shalt play this way: Ten commandments for paladins." Dragon (#51). July 1981: 36-38.

Donovan, Dale A. "Morals: Modern vs. Medieval." Dragon (#159). July, 1990: 6-7.

Donovan, Dale A. "Realistic Fantasy?" Dragon (#163). November 1990: 6-7.

Gygax, Gary. "Evil: Law Vs. Chaos." The Dragon (#28). August, 1979: 10-11.

Gygax, Gary. "Good isn't stupid, Paladins & Rangers, and Female dwarves do have beards!" The Dragon (#38). June, 1980: 22-23.

Inniss, Stephen. "The neutral point of view: Examining the territory between good and evil." Dragon (#99). July, 1985: 8-10.

Laking, George and Tim Mesford. "Good got you down? Try this for evil. The Anti-Paladin NPC." Dragon (#39). July, 1980: 8-9, 50-53.

Lees, John. "Alignment: A new view of the nine philosophies." Dragon (#60). April 1982: 72-74.

Moore, Roger. "How to have a good time being evil." Dragon (#45). January 1981: 60-61.

Moore, Roger E. "It's not easy being good." Dragon (#51). 33-35.

Parlagreco, Carl. "Another View of the Nine-Point Alignment Scheme." The Dragon (#26). June 1979: 23.

Renaud, J.R. "Making law out of chaos." Dragon (#163). November 1990: 74-78.

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25) (pp. 1-65). New York: Academic Press.

Schwartz, S.H. (1996). Value priorities and behavior: Applying a theory of integrated value systems. In C. Seligman, J.M. Olson, & M.P. Zanna (Eds.), The psychology of values: The Ontario Symposium, Vol. 8 (pp. 1-24). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Welzel, Christian (2010). How Selfish are Self-Expression Values? A Civicness Test. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 41, Issue 2 (pp. 152-174).

Wood, Christopher. "A plethora of paladins." Dragon (#106). February, 1986: 45-56.